Where Is San Diego?

2018/04/06

Tags: San Diego County, California Pacific Ocean San Diego–Tijuana Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Detroit–Windsor Mission San Diego de Alcalá Gaspar de Portolà Spanish Empire Mexico First Mexican Empire

32 ° 42 '54 "north, 117 ° 09' 45" west

San Diego ("St. Didace"), pronounced in English [ˌsæn dieɪgoʊ], is a coastal town in southern California, United States, located in the extreme south-west of the country, near the border with Mexico. With 1,307,402 inhabitants in 2010, it is the eighth largest city in the country 1 and the second largest in terms of population. The agglomeration San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos has 3,095,313 inhabitants in 2010, the 17th US 2. The birthplace of California, San Diego is known for its pleasant climate and beaches, as well as its deep-sea port and military history with the United States Navy, which has several naval bases and is home to one of the largest naval fleets of the world.

Historically land of the North American Indian people Kumeyaay, San Diego is the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the west coast of the United States. After landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, João Rodrigues Cabrilho claims the entire area for Spain (New Spain), forming the base of Upper California two centuries later. The Presidio and the San Diego Mission, founded in 1769, are the first European colony in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico and in 1850 became part of the United States after the Mexican-American War and California's admission to the Union.

The city is the county seat of San Diego and is the economic hub of the San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area as well as the San Diego-Tijuana urban area. The main economic drivers of San Diego are military and defense activities, tourism, international trade and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), together with UC San Diego Health System's affiliated academic medical campus site, has helped to make the region a biotech research center.

The San Diego area has been inhabited for over 10 centuries by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region is the Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho who sails for the Crown of Castile. Traveling on his ship San Salvador from Navidad in New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542 and named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his San Diego ship, Vizcaíno surveys the coastal areas that are now known as Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area after the Catholic saint Diego d'Alcalá, a Spanish more commonly known as "San Diego de Alcalá". On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service is recorded in Upper California is directed by Brother Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of the Vizcaíno Expedition, to celebrate San Diego Day.

In May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the San Diego Presidio fort on a hill near the San Diego River. In July of the same year, the Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan monks led by Father Junípero Serra. In 1797, the mission had the largest indigenous population in Upper California, with more than 1,400 Amerindians living in and around the mission. The San Diego Mission is the southern terminus of the historic El Camino Real Trail. Both the Presidio and the Mission are subsequently classified as historical sites.

In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain and San Diego became part of the Mexican state of Upper California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the city of San Diego grew on the land below Presidio Hill. The mission was secularized by the Mexican government and most of the mission lands were distributed to wealthy California settlers.

Due to the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848, the territory of Upper California, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States by Mexico. The Battle of San Pasqual, a battle of that war, was fought in 1846 at San Pasqual Valley, which is now part of the city of San Diego. The state of California was admitted to the United States in 1850. That same year, San Diego was designated as the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was recognized as a city. The initial administration system of the city was established in 1889 and the one used today was adopted in 1931.

The original city of San Diego is located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area that is now the Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The location is not ideal, being several kilometers from the waterways. In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton promoted a move to "New Town", several kilometers south of the original city, in the area that became downtown San Diego. People and businesses flocked here because of its location on San Diego Bay, convenient for trade. The new city quickly eclipsed the original city, known today as the Old Town district, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.

In the first part of the twentieth century, San Diego hosted two international exhibitions: the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 and the California Pacific International Exposition (in) in 1935. The first celebrates the opening of the Panama Canal and is intended to to publicize the city of San Diego as it becomes the first US port on the route of ships traveling to the northwestern United States after passing through the canal. Both exhibitions take place in Balboa Park - a reference to Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to have discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513 - and many buildings are built in a Baroque and Spanish style and remain characteristic today. of the park. The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remain in continuous use until they gradually fall into ruin. Most of them are finally rebuilt, using moldings of the original facades to preserve their architectural style. The exotic animal menagerie showcased at the 1915 show provides the foundation for the San Diego Zoo.

A notable presence of the US Navy began in 1901 with the establishment of a marine coal station at Point Loma, and expanded considerably in the 1920s. In 1930, the city hosted the naval base San Diego Naval Training Center, San Diego Naval Medical Center, Calvin B. Matthews Camp, and Kearny Camp (future Marine Corps Air Station Miramar). The city is also one of the first aviation centers: in the First World War, San Diego proclaimed itself "the air capital of the West". The city is home to major aircraft developers and manufacturers such as Ryan Airlines (future Ryan Aeronautical Company) and Consolidated Aircraft Corporation (future Convair). The Spirit of St. Louis , Charles Lindbergh's plane, was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines.

During the Second World War, San Diego became a major hub of US military and defense activity, due to the presence of many manufacturers of military and defense facilities. The population of the city grew rapidly during and after the war, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995 inhabitants) and 1950 (333,865 inhabitants). After the Second World War, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post-Cold War budget cuts cost the local defense and the aerospace industry a heavy toll. This slowdown is driving San Diego leaders to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.

Downtown San Diego was declining in the 1960s and 1970s, but has seen some urban renewal since the early 1980s and the opening of the Westfield Horton Plaza shopping mall, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter tourist and construction San Diego Convention Center. The Petco Park baseball stadium opened in 2004.

The city of San Diego is at the southern end of the west coast of the United States, two and a half hours drive from Los Angeles, California's largest metropolitan area. The city lies on the shores of San Diego Bay, sheltered by the peninsulas of Point Loma and Coronado. It is the last major US coastal agglomeration before the border with Mexico and Tijuana, Mexico, is only 15 minutes drive.

The area of San Diego is 964 km 2 , of which 842 km 2 of land, the rest being in the maritime domain. The city is located on canyons and hills separating its mesas, giving it a hilly geography. Traditionally, the people of San Diego have built their homes on the mesas, while leaving the canyons relatively wild. Thus, canyons give a feeling of segmented areas, with spaces between neighborhoods out of the city center, contributing to low density. The edges of the city are irregular, due to the absorption of many suburbs within its boundaries. The San Diego River passes in the middle of the agglomeration from east to west, creating a valley that divides the city into north and south areas. Several lakes and the Mission Trails Regional Park are also located between the developed and scattered areas of the city. San Diego historically has the distinction of having a geographically different old town from downtown, respectively Old Town (Old Town San Diego State Historic Park) and downtown San Diego.

Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain (in), the highest point at 486 meters, Black Mountain (at) with 475 meters and Mount Soledad at 251 meters. The Cuyamaca Mountains and the Laguna Mountains are to the east of the city and, beyond, the areas are desert. The Cleveland National Forest is half an hour from downtown San Diego.

Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Diego, is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older and denser urban communities like Hillcrest and North Park. To the east and south are City Heights (in) and College Area (in). To the north are Mission Valley and Interstate 8. Clairemont, Kearny Mesa, Tierrasanta and Navajo are the notable communities north of the San Diego River Valley and Highway, as well as south of the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. North of Miramar are Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos and Rancho Bernardo. The extreme northeastern part of the city includes Hodges Lake and San Pasqual Valley. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwestern corner of the city. To their south are the Torrey Pine State Park and University City. Further south are the coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach and Ocean Beach. Point Loma occupies a peninsula. Southern San Diego communities, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the US-Mexico border and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City and Chula Vista.

The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 general development plan around the concept of a "city of villages".

The city of San Diego was originally centered on the current Old Town district, but in the late 1860s, the downtown area was moved closer to the bay to increase commerce. This new location has grown rapidly and has eclipsed the old city like downtown San Diego.

The development of the skyscrapers of over 91 meters in San Diego began with the construction of the El Cortez Apartment Hotel in 1927. The latter remains the tallest building in the city between 1927 and 1963. Subsequently, other buildings have taken the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, such as the Union Bank of California Building and the Symphony Towers. Currently, and since 1991, the tallest building in San Diego is the One America Plaza with 150 meters high. The skyline of the downtown area does not contain skyscrapers greater than 152 meters in height, since a 1970-era Federal Aviation Administration regulation set this limit for building heights because of the proximity of the skyscrapers. from San Diego International Airport. The main corridor of the latter passing from east to west at the Balboa Park.

The climate of San Diego is semi-arid Mediterranean with just enough rainfall in July to avoid the classification of "mild desert climate" ( BSn ), as coastal winds from the Pacific Ocean temperate the local climate , making summers cooler and winters warmer. The average temperature in summer is 21-23 ° C, in winter 14-16 ° C. The average annual rainfall is 25.4 cm. The most important rainfall period is between November and March. The months of May and June are not very sunny due to recurring mists. The minimum temperature ever recorded is -4 ° C and the maximum temperature is 44 ° C.

The table below is a climatological survey of San Diego (International Airport) for the period 1981-2010 (NOAA):

California San Diego climatological table, 1981-2010 Month jan. Feb. march april may june june. August sep. Oct. Nov. dec. year Minimum average temperature (° C) 9.4 10.4 11.8 13.3 15.2 16.7 18.6 19.3 18.4 15.9 12 9.1 14.1 Average temperature (° C) 14.2 14.7 15.5 16.8 18.1 19.4 21.4 22.2 21.7 19.6 16.6 17.8 19.2 Average Maximum Temperature (° C) 18.4 18 , 3 18.7 19.7 20.3 21.6 23.7 24.7 24.4 22.7 20.6 18.2 20.9 Precipitation (mm) 50.3 57.7 46 19.8 3 1.8 0.8 0.5 3.8 14.5 25.4 38.9 262.4 Census History Ann. Pop. % ± 1850 500- 1860 73146.2% 1870 2 300214.6% 1880 2 63714.7% 1890 16 159512.8% 1900 17,7009.5% 1910 39 578123.6% 1920 74 36187.9% 1930 147 99599, 0% 1940 203 34137.4% 1950 334 38764.4% 1960 573 22471.4% 1970 696 76921.6% 1980 875 53825.7% 1990 1 110 54926.8% 2000 1 223 40010.2% 2010 1 307 4026 , 9% East. 2017 1,419,516 [4] 8.6% Other 12.3 17.0 6.2 Métis 5.1 4.9 2.9

According to the American Community Survey , for the 2011-2015 period, 59.35% of the population over the age of 5 years report speaking English at home, while 23.05% say they speak Spanish, 4.09% Tagalog, 2.49% Vietnamese, 2.47% Chinese language, 0.75% Persian, 0.74% Korean, 0.53% Arabic, 0.49% Japanese, 0.47% % Hindi, 0.46% German, 0.45% French, 0.44% Russian and 4.21% another language 7 .

According to the American Community Survey , for the period 2011-2015, 26.6% of the population of San Diego was born foreign, a percentage equivalent to that observed at the state level (27.0%), but well above the national average (13.2%) 8 .

San Diego has a strong Mexican influence due to its proximity to the United States-Mexico border, and it has 30% Hispanics (more than 85% of Mexican origin 9 ). In addition, other minority groups are shaping the culture of the city, such as Sicilians and Portuguese, who arrived during the last centuries, and new immigrants, most of whom come from the former countries of the USSR, Asia and Europe. 'Africa.

San Diego's economy is influenced by its deepwater port, which is the only major shipyard for submarines on the west coast of the country. Several large defense-related companies are from or headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic Corporation, and National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO).

San Diego is the home port of the largest naval fleet in the world, with 53 vessels, over 120 military commands and more than 35,000 naval, military, civilian and contractor staff of the US Department of Defense in 2008. United. About 5% of all civilian jobs in San Diego County are military-related and 15,000 county businesses have contracts with the Department of Defense.

Military bases in San Diego include US Navy facilities, US Marine Corps bases, and United States Coast Guard Corps stations. The institutions of the Marines in the city of San Diego include Air Base Miramar and Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. The Navy, including the Point Loma Naval Base, the San Diego Naval Base, the Naval Medical Center San Diego (Bob Wilson Naval Hospital) and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) Headquarters and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Pacific Center. Near San Diego, but not within the administrative boundaries of the city are the Coronado Amphibious Naval Base and the North Island Air Base (which operates the Naval Auxiliary Landing Field San Clemente Island, the Silver Strand Training Complex and the Naval Outlying Landing Field Imperial Beach). San Diego is known as the "cradle of naval aviation".

The city is also home to the majority of "surface fighters" in the Pacific Ocean Fleet (US Seventh Fleet), all naval amphibious ships on the West Coast, and numerous Corps ships. coastguards. A Nimitz-class aircraft carrier (USS Carl Vinson ), five landing craft, several Los Angeles-class submarines, the USNS Mercy hospital ship, aircraft and submarine tenders, destroyers, cruisers, frigates and many other smaller vessels have San Diego as home port.

San Diego is an important tourist destination. Enjoying a sunny climate and beautiful sandy beaches, it also offers visitors other points of interest:

The commercial port of San Diego and its location near the border between the United States and Mexico make international trade an important economic factor of the city. The city is further authorized by the US government to function as an international trading zone.

The city shares a 24-kilometer border with Mexico, including two border crossings. One of these, the San Ysidro Port of Entry in the San Ysidro neighborhood, is one of the busiest in the world, while that of Otay Mesa is the main point of connection between California and the state. Mexican Baja California and manages the third largest number of trucks and trade value of all border crossings between the United States and Mexico.

One of San Diego's two cargo port facilities is located in downtown San Diego at Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. This terminal has facilities for containers, for bulk goods and for refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of perishable goods (including 33 million bananas each month) as well as fertilizers, cement, forest products (wood) and other goods. In 2009, the port of San Diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade. Foreign trade represented 956,637 short tones while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tones.

The Palais des congrès, located on the Port of San Diego offers five monumental open-air sculptures, among which is Coming together , a work of Niki de Saint Phalle 12 meters high, inaugurated in 2001 13

The more prestigious University of San Diego is the University of California in San Diego, more commonly known by its initials UCSD, ranked 14th best university in the world in 2007, according to Jiao Tong University in Shanghai. One can also find the University of San Diego (USD), Catholic University, San Diego State University; and several other higher education institutions, including the CAE Oxford Aviation Academy Flight Training School San Diego.

San Diego is home to many museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art, the San Diego Museum of Natural History, the San Diego Museum of the Man, the San Diego Model Railway Museum, the San Diego Museum of Art. the air and space of San Diego and the San Diego Photographic Arts Museum which are located in Balboa Park. The San Diego Museum of Contemporary Art (MCASD) is located in La Jolla and has a branch located in San Diego Station in the downtown area. The Columbia district is home to the Maritime Museum of San Diego, notable to count the three-masted ship Star of India from his collection, and the museum of the USS Midway located on the USS Midway.

The San Diego Symphony Orchestra based in the Symphony Towers is led by conductor Jahja Ling. The San Diego Opera House, located at the Civic Center Plaza, has been rated by Opera America as one of the top ten opera companies in the United States. The Old Globe Theater at Balboa Park produces approximately fifteen plays and musicals annually. The La Jolla Playhouse at the University of California San Diego is led by Christopher Ashley. Both the Old Globe Theater and La Jolla Playhouse have produced the world premieres of plays and musicals that have won Tony Awards or Broadway nominations. The Joan B. Kroc Theater at the Kroc Center's Performing Arts Center is a 600-seat venue that hosts live shows and concerts. The San Diego Repertory Theater at Westfield Horton Plaza's Lyceum Theaters produces a wide variety of plays and musicals. Other theatrical companies include the Lyric Opera San Diego and the Starlight Bowl.

Hundreds of films and a dozen television shows were filmed in San Diego, a tradition that goes back as far as 1898. The city is also renowned for its music scene and its ability to bring out new talents, like the songwriter and guitarist and singer Jason Mraz. The punk rock band Blink-182, like the psychedelic rock band Iron Butterfly, is from the San Diego area. In the film The Lost World: Jurassic Park, the city of San Diego holds a big place, moreover at the end of the film, the city invaded by the T-Rex is the city of San Diego.

San Diego had for many years a football team: the San Diego Chargers. They played in the National Football League and played in the Qualcomm Stadium. Three Super Bowls took place in this stage: Super Bowl XXII in 1988, Super Bowl XXXII in 1998 and Super Bowl XXXVII in 2003.

The baseball team of the San Diego Padres who play in the Major League Baseball plays in the Petco Park. Some World Baseball Classic events in 2006 and 2009 were held at this stadium.

The men's and women's basketball team of the San Diego State Aztecs play in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and in the Viejas Arena, on the campus of San Diego State University. Teams of college football, university football, university basketball and university volleyball play at Torero Stadium and the Jenny Craig Pavilion at the University of San Diego campus.

San Diego State University's San Diego State University football team, the San Diego State Aztecs, play in the Mountain West Conference (MWC) and the San Diego Toreros of the University of San Diego play in the West Coast Conference (WCC). They are both in Division I of the NCAA. UC San Diego Tritons play in the California Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA) in NCAA Division II, while Point Loma Nazarene Sea Lions at Loma Point Nazarene University and San Diego Christian College play in the Golden State Athletic Conference (GSAC) of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA).

Qualcomm Stadium is also home to the San Diego State Aztecs, as well as local high school football championships, international football matches and supercross events. Two annual college football bowls are also played there: the Holiday Bowl and the Poinsettia Bowl. Football, American football and athletics are also played in the Balboa Stadium (in), the first stadium in the city, built in 1914.

Rugby is a developing sport in the city. The USA Sevens, a major rugby event in the United States, took place in the city between 2007 and 2009. San Diego is one of only sixteen cities in the country represented in the US Rugby Union Championship by through the Old Mission Athletic Beach Club Rugby Football Club. San Diego will participate in the American National Rugby League starting in 2011.

The San Diego Surf of the American Basketball Association 2000 is based in the city. The PGA Tour's Farmers Insurance Open (formerly Buick Invitational) Golf Tournament is held at the municipally owned Torrey Pines Golf Course. This course was also the site of the 2008 US Open Golf. The San Diego Yacht Club hosted America's Cup races three times during the period 1988-1995. Over-the-line beach sport was invented in San Diego and its world championships are held annually in Mission Bay.

The basketball franchises of the Los Angeles Clippers and the Houston Rockets who play in the National Basketball Association (NBA) have been in their history in San Diego, between 1978 and 1984 respectively under the name of the San Diego Clippers and in 1967 under the name of the San Diego Rockets.

San Diego is known for its athletic "curse", as none of its professional teams competing in a major league in the modern era won a title. With a population of over one million, San Diego is the largest city in the United States in this case.

San Diego is renowned for being a conservative Republican city, making it a political exception within the liberal California.

This constant Republican domination since the end of the Second World War is due in part to the significant presence of US military bases. Yet, the 2005 census indicated 39% of Democrats for 34% of Republicans.

The former mayor of San Diego from 1971 to 1983, Pete Wilson, was governor of California from 1991 to 1998.

In the November 2005 local elections, voters in the city chose Republican Jerry Sanders as mayor with 54 percent of the vote, compared with Democrat Donna Frye's 45 percent. He is re-elected in 2008 for a second and final term.

Based in: from 3 December 2012, his successor, Bob Filner, resigns nine months later, on 30 August 2013, as a result of sexual harassment complaints filed against him by a score of 14 women. On February 11, 2014, Republican Kevin Faulconer is elected new mayor and takes office on March 3 following.

The San Diego Municipal Police is the San Diego Police Department.

As the automobile is the main means of transportation in the region, Greater San Diego is served by a major highway network. Il inclut l'Interstate 5, en direction du comté d'Orange au nord et du Mexique au sud, l'Interstate 8, en direction de l'Arizona à l'est, l'Interstate 15, qui se dirige vers le comté de Riverside, et l'Interstate 805, qui se sépare de l'I-5 à Sorrento Valley et la rejoint avant la frontière mexicaine.

Les routes d'État importantes de la région sont la 54 (en) dans la zone de South Bay ; la 125 (en), 94, et 67 dans l'est du comté ; la 56 et la 78 au nord ; la 52 (La Jolla-Santee) ; et la 163 (en) (Downtown-Miramar). Le San Diego-Coronado Bridge fait partie de California State Route 75.

Plusieurs projets régionaux d'amélioration de ce réseau routier ont été dessinés ces dernières années, dans le but de remédier au nombre croissant d'embouteillages sur ces autoroutes ; par exemple, une extension importante de l'I-5 et de l'I-805.

La ville possède un réseau de transports en commun exploité par la société "San Diego Metropolitan Transit" combinant un réseau de tramway, composé de 4 lignes, des lignes de bus et des liaisons ferroviaires avec Amtrak, desservant essentiellement le centre-ville et ses environs. Une extension du réseau de tramway le long de la Freeway 5 reliera de nouvelles zones de la ville. Le bus emprunte ses principales routes.

L'aéroport international de San Diego, aussi connu sous le nom de Lindbergh International Airport ou Lindbergh Field , est l'aéroport commercial le plus important de la région de San Diego. Les autres aéroports sont le Brown Field Airport ( Brown Field ) et le Montgomery Field Municipal Airport ( Montgomery Field ).

Un transport maritime existe aussi pour la baie, qui comprend plusieurs ferries. Le port est également le point de départ de croisières vers le Mexique, Hawaï, l'Alaska et les Caraïbes via le canal de Panama.

Les séries Simon et Simon (CBS, 1981-1989), Le Rebelle (1992-1997), That '80s Show (FOX, 2002), Drake et Josh (Nickelodeon, 2004-2007), Veronica Mars (UPN puis The CW, 2004-2007), Weeds (Showtime, 2005-2012), The Game (The CW, 2006-2009, puis BET 2011-2015), Cavemen (ABC, 2007), $h*! My Dad Says (CBS, 2010-2011), Terriers (FX, 2010), Mr. Sunshine (ABC, 2011), The Fosters (Freeform, 2013-2018), Grace et Frankie (Netflix, depuis 2015), Pitch (Fox, 2016) se déroulent à San Diego.